Light classical music read learn and watch Thumri, Dadra, Ghazal, Chaiti, Kajri, Tappa, Natya Sangeet and Qawwali.
Thumrī (Devanagari: ठुमरी, Nastaliq: ٹھمری, Bengali: ঠুমরী) is a common genre of semi-classical Indian music. The term ‘thumri’ is derived from the Hindi verb thumakna which means “to walk with dancing steps so as to make the ankle-bells tinkle.” The form is, thus, connected with dance, dramatic gestures, mild eroticism, evocative love poetry and folk songs of Uttar Pradesh, though there are regional variations.
The text is romantic or devotional in nature, and usually revolves around a girl’s love for Krishna. The lyrics are usually in Uttar Pradeshdialects of Hindi called Awadhi and Brij Bhasha. Thumri is characterized by its sensuality, and by a greater flexibility with the raag.
Thumrī is also used as a generic name for some other, even lighter, forms such as Dadra, Hori, Kajari, Saavan, Jhoola, and Chaiti, even though each of them has its own structure and content — either lyrical or musical or both — and so the exposition of these forms vary. Like Indian classical music itself, some of these forms have their origin in folk literature and music.
This is a Hindustani classical tala (rhythmic cycle), consisting of six beats in two equal divisions of three. The most commonly accepted theka or basic pattern for this tala is dha dhi na, dha tu na. There is a higher emphasis laid on the first swar in comparison the following two, that is, dha – higher emphasis following dhi na and again a higher emphasis on dha following tu na.
In this context dadra is a light classical vocal form in Hindustani classical music, mostly performed in Agra and in Bundelkhand region. It was originally accompanied by dadra tala (from where the term for the genre was borrowed), but later dadra compositions are often found in other light talas (such as (keherwa).
There have been some Bollywood songs as well based on the same for instance Madan Mohan (music director) composition –Lag Jaa Gale, a song from the movie Woh Kaun Thi. Then there is also a famous dadra sung by Mallika-e-Ghazal Begum Akhtar Hamari Atariya Pe Aao.
The ghazal (Arabic/Persian/Urdu: غزل) is a poetic form with rhyming couplets and a refrain, each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in Arabic poetry in Arabia long before the birth of Islam. It is derived from the Arabian panegyricqasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content, it is a genre that has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation.
The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century by the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic sultanates. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, it is now found in the poetry of many languages on the Indian Subcontinent.
Ghazals were written by Rumi and Hafiz of Persia; the Azeri poet Fuzûlî in the Ottoman Empire; Mirza Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal of North India; and Kazi Nazrul Islam of Bengal. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), the ghazal became very popular in Germany during the 19th century; the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert (1788–1866) and August von Platen (1796–1835). The Kashmiri poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of “real Ghazals in English”. Ghazals were written by Moti Ram Bhatta (1866 – 1896), the pioneer for Ghazal writing in Nepali language.
Natya Sangeet (Marathi: नाट्यसंगीत) is a form of Indian classical and semi-classical music. The name literally means Dramatic Music and the musical dramas are then called as Sangeet Natak. It is also one of the two popular forms of vocal arts in Maharashtra and surrounding states.
Qawwali (Nastaʿlīq: قوّالی) is a form of Sufi devotional music in South Asia. It is popular in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan, in many parts of North India including Hyderabad and Delhi, and many parts of Bangladesh. It is part of a musical tradition that stretches back for more than 700 years.
Originally performed mainly at Sufi shrines or dargahs throughout South Asia, it has also gained mainstream popularity. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Pakistani singers Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and Sabri Brothers, largely due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Other famous Qawwali singers include Pakistan’s Amjad Farid Sabri, Bahauddin Qutbuddin and Aziz Mian.